**GATE Data Science and AI Programming Data Structures and Algorithms Syllabus**

**Programming in Python, basic data structures: stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, hash tables; Search algorithms: linear search and binary search, basic sorting algorithms: selection sort, bubble sort and insertion sort; divide and conquer: mergesort, quicksort; introduction to graph theory; basic graph algorithms: traversals and shortest path.**

Here’s a breakdown of each topic:

### Programming in Python:

Python is a versatile and widely-used programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It supports various programming paradigms, including procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming.

### Basic Data Structures:

- Stacks: Stacks are a Last In, First Out (LIFO) data structure where elements are inserted and removed from the same end, typically called the “top.”Queues: Queues are a First In, First Out (FIFO) data structure where elements are inserted at the rear (tail) and removed from the front (head).Linked Lists: Linked lists are data structures consisting of nodes where each node contains a data element and a reference (or pointer) to the next node in the sequence.Trees: Trees are hierarchical data structures composed of nodes, where each node contains a value and references to its child nodes.Hash Tables: Hash tables are data structures that store key-value pairs, allowing for efficient retrieval of values based on their associated keys.

Search Algorithms:

- Linear Search: Linear search is a simple search algorithm that sequentially checks each element in a list until a match is found or the end of the list is reached.Binary Search: Binary search is a more efficient search algorithm for sorted lists, where the list is repeatedly divided in half until the target value is found.

Basic Sorting Algorithms:

Selection Sort: Selection sort is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly selects the minimum (or maximum) element from an unsorted portion of the list and swaps it with the first unsorted element.Bubble Sort: Bubble sort is a sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list, compares adjacent elements, and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.Insertion Sort: Insertion sort is a sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted list one element at a time by repeatedly taking the next element and inserting it into its correct position in the sorted portion of the list.

Divide and Conquer:

- Merge Sort: Merge sort is a divide and conquer algorithm that divides the input list into two halves, recursively sorts each half, and then merges the sorted halves.Quick Sort: Quick sort is another divide and conquer algorithm that selects a pivot element, partitions the list into two sublists based on the pivot, and recursively sorts each sublist.

Introduction to Graph Theory:

Graph theory deals with the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures consisting of nodes (vertices) and edges that connect pairs of nodes.

### Basic Graph Algorithms:

- Graph Traversals: Graph traversals involve visiting all the nodes of a graph in a systematic way. Common traversal algorithms include depth-first search (DFS) and breadth-first search (BFS).Shortest Path Algorithms: Shortest path algorithms find the shortest path between two nodes in a graph. Common algorithms include Dijkstra’s algorithm and the Bellman-Ford algorithm.

Understanding these concepts and algorithms is fundamental for solving various programming problems efficiently and effectively, particularly in the fields of data structures, algorithms, and computer science in general.

**GATE DA Subject wise syllabus:**

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